Monday, November 3, 2008

4.Plural Forms of Nouns

Here we are again in this virtual school, today i am going to teach you about the plural forms of nouns, so let's bite right into it.

Plural Forms of Nouns

If a noun ends in a vowel, make it plural by adding -s.

  • libro: libros
    (libro + s)

    pluma: plumas
    (pluma + s)

    chico: chicos
    (chico + s)

    señora: señoras
    (señora + s)

The definite articles (el, la) also change in the plural form. They become "los" and "las." The definite articles will be covered in depth in the next lesson.

  • el libro: los libros

    la pluma: las plumas

    el chico: los chicos

    la señora: las señoras

If a noun ends in a consonant, make it plural by adding -es.

  • el borrador: los borradores
    (borrador + es)

    la universidad: las universidades
    (universidad + es)

    el profesor: los profesores
    (profesor + es)

    la ciudad: las ciudades
    (ciudad + es)

If a noun ends in -ión, add -es and drop the written accent.

  • el avión: los aviones

    la conversación: las conversaciones

    la sección: las secciones

    la televisión: las televisiones

Note: You may wonder why "avión" isn't feminine. Notice that it doesn't qualify for our rule which says that all nouns ending in -ción and sión are feminine.

If a noun ends in -z, add -es and change the z to c.

  • el lápiz: los lápices

    la voz: las voces

    el tapiz: los tapices

    la actriz: las actrices

When the plural refers to two or more nouns of different genders, the masculine plural is used.

  • 2 perros + 6 perras = 8 perros (not perras)

    1 gato + 8 gatas = 9 gatos (not gatas)

A few nouns are "compound nouns," that is, they are formed by combining two words into one. (Example: abre + latas = abrelatas / open + cans = can opener) These compound nouns are always masculine, and the plural is formed by changing the "el" to "los."

  • el abrelatas
    los abrelatas

    el paraguas
    los paraguas

Let's review the rules for making nouns plural.

  • If a noun ends in a vowel, simply add -s.

  • If a noun ends in a consonant, simply add -es.

  • If a noun ends in a -z, change the z to c before adding -es.

  • If a noun ends in ión, drop the written accent before adding -es.

  • If the plural refers to a mixed group, use the masculine.

  • For compound nouns, change "el" to "los".

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